The National Board of Examinations (NBE) has released the Curriculum for DNB Hospital Administration. 

I. PROGRAMME GOAL & OBJECTIVES

1. Programme Goal

The candidate after 03 years of DNB training should acquire the competencies so that the trainee is able to carry out the job functions of a healthcare administrator, including planning and management of services within the ethical as well as legal framework.

2. Programme Objective

• To manage operations of hospitals and other healthcare establishments including their human, finance, and materials resources

• To apply principles of management to plan, implement and control systems as well as processes in healthcare settings

• To plan hospitals and healthcare establishments

• To plan and implement healthcare programmes

II. TEACHING AND TRAINING ACTIVITIES

The fundamental components of the teaching programme should include the following: –

1. Case presentations & discussion- once a week

2. Seminar – Once a week

3. Journal club – Once a fortnight

4. 15 days rotation in all wards and departments of hospital as well as supportive services with a view to understand and resolve administrative issues. The findings to be documented for assessment by the faculty.

5. Faculty lecture teaching- Once a week

6. Audit of medical records and administrative issues of the Hospital – Once a Month

7. One poster and one oral presentation at least once during their training period in a recognized conference.

8. Study visits to the following nearby healthcare facilities: –

(a) Sub Centre

(b) Primary Health Centre

(c) Community Health Centre

(d) District Hospital

(e) Government Medical College

(f) Super Specialty Private Hospital

(g) Under construction Hospital Project

Theoretical: The theoretical knowledge would be imparted to the candidates through discussions, journal clubs, symposia and seminars. The students are exposed to recent advances through discussions in journal clubs. These are considered necessary in view of an inadequate exposure to the subject in the undergraduate curriculum.

Symposia: Trainees would be required to present a minimum of 20 topics based on the curriculum in a period of three years to the combined class of teachers and students. A free discussion would be encouraged in these symposia. The topics of the symposia would be given to the trainees with the dates for presentation.

Journal Clubs: This would be a fortnightly academic exercise. A list of suggested Journals is given towards the end of this document. The candidate would summarize and discuss the scientific article critically. A faculty member will suggest the article and moderate the discussion, with participation by other faculty members and resident doctors. The contributions made by the article in furtherance of the scientific knowledge and limitations, if any, will be highlighted.

Research: The student would carry out the research project and write a thesis/ dissertation in accordance with NBE guidelines.

III. SYLLABUS

1- General Administration and Management

Sl.

Topic

Contents

1.

Development of Management Concept

 History and growth of Management science

 Traditional vs. modern management

 Evolution of management theory

 Management as a profession

 Ethics in management

2.

Management Function & Tools

 Management levels and skills

 Functions & Principles of management

 Challenges to a manager

 Systems Approach

 Role of the executive

 Management tools

 Styles of management

 Committees

3.

Fundamentals of Planning and Decision Making

 Hierarchy and Types of Plans

 Steps in planning

 Managerial decision making

4.

Organization Structure

 Organizational design and function

 Hospital Organization

 Matching structure and strategy

 Functional organization

 Line and staff authority

 Delegation/ Decentralization

5.

Office procedure and Disciplinary proceedings

 Definition of Office & office procedures

 Drafting official letters

 Service rules & procedure

 Conduct rules

 Disciplinary proceedings

6.

Communication

 Basic concepts

 Types of communication

 Barriers of communication

 Principles of good communication

 Communication in Healthcare

7.

Personnel Management & Human Resource Development

 Definition & Importance

 Work study & Method study

 Manpower planning

 Recruitment & selection

 Job analysis

 Job description

 Job evaluation

 Job enrichment

 Training & development

 Performance Appraisal

 Grievance Redressal

 Absenteeism

8.

Organisational Behavior and Group Dynamics

 Basics of sociology, anthropology, psychology

 Characteristics of workgroups

 OB labs

 Dynamics of organizational behavior

 Motivation & Leadership

 Conflict management

 Transactional analysis

 Team building

 Change Management

 Johari Window

 Grievance redressal systems

9.

Financial Management

 GDP, GNP, National Economic Policies

 Budgeting, types of budget

 Working Capital, Cash flow analysis

 Financial Statement and Ratios

 Balance Sheets

 Elements of cost, cost accounting

 Fixed assets and Depreciation

 Break even analysis, Cost effectiveness, Cost benefit analysis

 Financial Management in hospitals

 Cost containment in hospitals

10.

Material Management

 Importance of Material Management

 Theory of Demand and Supply

 Inventory control

 Purchase cycle

 Tender System

 Economic order quantity, Safety stock, Lead time

 Receipt and Inspection of Stores

 Distribution, Standardisation, Codification

 Condemnation and Disposal

 Stores documentation

 Equipment audit

 Logistics and Supply chain management

 Role of computers in Stores Management

11.

Risk Management

 Ergonomics and its application in hospitals

 Occupational hazards

 Workman Compensation Act

 Definition, scope and importance of industrial relations

12.

Information System

 Information system analysis and design

 HMIS a tool to managerial control

13.

Modern Management Techniques

 Quantitative methods of Management

 OR techniques and their application in healthcare

 Management by objective

14.

Marketing Management

 Concept of Marketing

 Marketing strategies, evaluation and control

 Marketing Information & research

 Market & medical ethics

 Social Aspects of marketing

 Privatization of Health

 Public Private Partnership (PPP)

 Outsourcing

 Medical Tourism

 Corporate Social Responsibility

2- Health care and Health Administration

Sl

Topic

Contents

1.

Development of Health Services in India

 Evaluation of health care services

 Definition & dimensions of health

 Review of different reports on Health care

2.

Medical Sociology

 Sociological perspectives of Health, illness and healing

3.

Health & Disease

 Concept of health & disease

 Concept of well being

 Natural history of disease and role of hospitals in various levels of prevention

4.

Research Methodology in Health and Hospital Administration

 Concept of health indicators

 Types of surveys

 Selecting a problem, making hypothesis

 Research Protocol writing

 Determining objectives

 Bibliographical data

 Sample size determination

 Data collection techniques and tools

 Questionnaires and Interview techniques

 Observation technique

 Analysis of data

 Report writing

 Errors of Measurement

5.

National Health Policy

 National Health Policy – 2017

 Role of Health education and communication

 Health Committees

 National Health Programmes

 Millennium Developmental Goals and Sustainable development goals

6.

Biostatistics

 Concept of Biostatistics

 Presentation of data

 Frequency of distribution

 Measurements of central tendency

 Measurement of dispersion

 Sampling & Sampling error

 Testing of hypothesis

 Test of significance

7.

Epidemiology

 Evolution and uses of epidemiology

 Definitions and terminology

 Natural history of disease and role of hospital in various levels of preventions

 Types of epidemiology

 Methods of epidemiological studies

 Socio-economic status and occupation as determinant in disease distribution

 Cause and effect relationship

 Epidemiology of hospital infection

 Epidemiology of

 Non-Communicable diseases

 Trauma and RTA

 Diabetes

 Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

 How to investigate an epidemic and role of the hospital in its control

 Common diseases in India-their epidemiology and prevention

 Screening and surveys

 Concept of health Indicators

 Disability adjusted life years (DALY’s)

 Quality adjusted life years (QALY’s)

 Disability adjusted life expectancy (DALE)

 Physical quality of life Index (PQLI) etc

8.

Health Statistics and Health Information System in India

 Need

 Common rates & ratio

 Incidence & prevalence rates and

 Morbidity

 Mortality

 Health reports

 Notifiable Diseases

 Health care Delivery system

 ICD -10 & ICD – 11

9.

Hospital Utilization Statistics

 Community Indices: Bed population ratio, Hospital admission rate , Per capita Hospitalisation rate

 Hospital utilisation Indices: Average daily census, Bed occupancy rate, bed turnover rate, bed turn over interval, Average length of stay

10.

Medical Records

 Definition, historical background, types of medical records, retention of records, computerisation of

medical records, medical record audit, MR Department

11.

Health Economics

 Basics of health economics

 Analysis of demand and supply

 Health Insurance Schemes and social

 Security scheme like CGHS, ESI in India

 Medical care system & Health

 Insurance System in different countries

12.

Population Dynamics

 Demography and family planning

13.

Ethics Laws and Acts

 Code of Medical Ethics and duties of physicians

 Legal issues in Hospital administration

 Laws and Acts applicable to hospitals

 Medico legal Cases

 Industrial relations and laws

 Patient’s rights & provider’s responsibility – Medical Malpractice

 Medical ethics and ethical issues in end of life decisions

 Dying Declaration

 Importance (section 32 & 157) of Indian Evidence Act and Death Certificate –

3- Hospital Planning and Hospital Administration

Sl.

Topic

Contents

1.

Hospital

 History and development of hospitals

 Definition, types, control, role and functions

 Hospitals in India today, their number, types, size,

distribution, ownership, utilization, issues & trends

2.

Nursing Administration

 Introduction to Nursing profession

 Nursing organization structure

 Nurse as a social and professional entity

 Staffing norms in various types of hospitals and different departments.

 Recent trends in nursing profession and nursing

3.

Public Relations in Hospital

 Public relations

4.

Employees Welfare

 Welfare schemes

 Occupational safety

 Conflict management

 Stress management

 Counseling

5.

Quality in Health Services

 Quality concept

 Verifiable standards and parameter

 Various Quality Models

 Total Quality management

 Kaizen

 Lean management

 Six Sigma in healthcare

 Hospital and Healthcare Accreditation

6.

Future of Hospital Administration

 Performance Review

 Hospital statistics & quality control

 Recent trends in hospital

 Challenges to administrators

 Reengineering

 Telemedicine

 Artificial intelligence

7.

Hospital Planning- General consideration

 Changing system of Health Services concept in planning, designing and space

 Site surveys for planning a hospital

 Planning for hospitals macro and micro aspects

 Hospital building an overview

 External architectural aspects and landscaping

 Internal arrangements

 Hospital hygiene and sanitation

 Lighting & HVAC

 Design considerations including evidence- based design and Architect Brief

 Planning and designing specialised hospitals

 Taking over and commissioning a new hospital

 Alteration and additions in an existing hospital

 Planning the Hospital Engineering Services

 Repair and maintenance schedule

 Equipment planning for a new hospital

 Green buildings

4. Administration of Clinical and Non-Clinical Services and Administrative Procedures

Sl.

Topic

Contents

1.

Clinical Services

 Outpatient services

 Surgical services

 Operating department

 Paediatric services

 Dental services & Maxillo-facial Surgery

 Psychiatric services

 Radiodiagnosis

 Radiotherapy services

 Accident and Emergency services

 Hospital Laboratory services

 Obstetrics and Gynecology services

 Intensive care unit

 Dialysis unit

 Day care units

 Bone marrow transplant unit (BMT)

 Nuclear medicine

 Lithotripsy centre

 Physiotherapy centre

 Burns centre

 Malignant Diseases Treatment Centre

 Trauma centre

 Geriatric services

 Antibiotic Policy

 Standard Precautions

 Spill Management

 Occupational hazards and safety in healthcare

2.

Non Clinical services and Administrative procedure

 Enquiry & registration

 Admission office

 Inspection, Medical Superintendent’s rounds

 Hospital Standing Orders

 Hospital Welfare Services

 Indian Red Cross society and hospitals

 Nursing services

 Ward management including welfare and recreational facilities

 House-keeping including Pest control

 Medical stores and Pharmacy services

 Blood Bank and Transfusion-services

 Central Sterile Supply Department (CSSD)

 Dietary service

 Linen and laundry services

 Hospital engineering services

 Fire Fighting services

 Ambulance services

 Fatal documents

 Mortuary

 Equipment management

 Transportation in hospitals (Intramural, Extramural)

 Biomedical waste management

 Solid waste management

 Hospital Information system (HIS)

 Structural requirement for infection control in hospitals

 Hospital formulary

 Essential drugs list (EDL)

 Patient feedback & Discharge procedure

 Disaster Management

 Fire Safety in Hospitals

 Hospital Safety and Security

 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Hospital Media Relations & Marketing Non – Profit Organizations

IV. COMPETENCIES

Presentation and communication skills

• Problem solving skills

• Leadership skills

• Planning and monitoring of the health activities

• Analysis of data

• Evaluation of the activities and programmes

• Research

• Mentoring

• Training and development of manpower

V. LOG BOOK

A candidate shall maintain a log book of operations (assisted / performed) during the training period, certified by the concerned post graduate teacher / Head of the department / senior consultant. The log book should show evidence that the before mentioned subjects were covered (with dates and the name of teacher(s) The candidate will maintain the record of all academic activities undertaken by him/her in log book.

1. Personal profile of the candidate

2. Educational qualification/Professional data

3. Record of case histories

4. Procedures learnt

5. Record of case Demonstration/Presentations

VI. RECOMMENDED TEXT BOOKS AND JOURNALS 

BOOKS

General Administration and Management

1. Management: Management: A Global, Innovative and Entrepreneurial

Perspective – Harold Koontz

2. Management – JF Stoner

3. Organisational Behaviour – Stephen P Robbins

4. Management of Organisational Behaviour – Paul Hersey

5. Human Behaviour at work – Keith Davis

6. Personnel and Human Resource Management – David Adenzo, Stephen P Robbins

7. Principles of Operations Research – Harvey M Wagner

8. Industrial Engineering and Management – OP Khanna

9. Material Management Inventory Control and Logistics – AK Dutta

10. Financial Management for Hospital Administration – GB Kulkarni

11. Hospital Stores Management: An integrated approach – Dr Shakti Gupta, Dr Sunil Kant

12. Principles of Marketing – P Kotler & Armstrong

13. Essentials of Healthcare Marketing – E Brokovich

14. How to Market your Hospital without Selling your Philosophy – GD Kunders

Healthcare and Health Administration

1. Parks textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine – K Park

2. National Health Programmes in India: National policies & legislations related to health – Jugal Kishore

3. Understanding health Economics – A guide for healthcare decision makers – Paul R Macrone, UK Kogan

4. Biostatistics & Research Methodology – Mahajan

5. Epidemiology in Health Services Management, – G.E. Alan Dever

6. Epidemiology – Leon Gordis

7. Medical negligence and the Law in India: Duties, Responsibilities, Rights – Tapas Kumar Koley

8. Medico legal aid to hospitals and doctors with consumer protection law – MS Pandit & Shobha Pandit

9. Medical Ethics Challenges and prospects in India – Subrata Sharma

Hospital Planning and Hospital Administration

1. Principles of Hospital Administration – JR Mc Gibony

2. Principles of Hospital Administration and Planning – BM Sakharkar

3. Planning and Approach to Health Facilities (5 Volumes) – WHO

4. Hospital Administration Handbook – HS Rowland & BL Rowland

5. Hospital Planning and Administration – R Lewelyn Davies and HMC Macaulay

6. Planning, Designing and Maintaining of Hospitals – GD Kunders

7. Medical and Dental Space Planning: A comprehensive guide to design, equipment and clinical procedures – Jain Malkin

8. Hospital Infection Control Guideline: Principles and Practice – Sanjeev Singh, Shakti Kumar Gupta, Sunil Kant

9. Juran’s Quality Handbook – Joseph M Juran

10. Handbook of Healthcare quality & patient safety – Gyani G, Thomas A

11. Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare and Patient Safety – Pascale Carayon

12. Quality in Healthcare – Al Alassaf

13. Applying quality management in Healthcare – Diane L Kelly

14. Quality & Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations – WHO

15. Accreditation Manual: NABH

16. American Institute of Architects – Hospital & Healthcare Facilities

17. National Building Code 2016 – Bureau of Indian Standards

18. IPHS guidelines 

Management of Clinical and Non-Clinical Services

1. Hospital Special Care Facilities – Harold Lauffman

2. Hospital Beds – J Yates

3. Antibiotic Policies: Controlling Hospital Acquired Infection – Ian M Gould Jos Van Der Meer

4. District Healthcare Facilities – WHO

5. Constructional and Functional requirements for road ambulances: (National Ambulance Code) – Department of Road transport and Highways, Govt of india

6. Health Building Note (01-16) (Department of Health Govt. of UK)

7. Hospital and Health Services Administration: Principles and Practices – Tabish Syed Amin

8. Leveraging Lean in Hospital ancillary Services: Charles Protzman and Joyce Kerpchar

9. Handbook of Hospital Security and Safety – James T Turner

10. Emergency Medical Services & Disaster Management – Dr PK Dave, Dr Shakti Gupta, Dr NK Parmar, Dr Sunil Kant

JOURNAL & MAGAZINES

1. Health Policy and Planning

2. Hospital and Health Network

3. Health Service Management & Research

4. Express Healthcare

5. JAHA: Journal of Academy of Hospital Administration

6. Physician Executive Journal

7. Health Service Management Review

8. World Hospitals and Health Services

9. Journal of Healthcare Management (ACHE)

10. Harvard Business Review

11. Journal on Hospital Infection

12. International Journal for evidence-based healthcare

13. Hospital Design Manual

14. International Journal of Research Foundation of Hospital and Healthcare Administration

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