Obstructive Sleep Apnea occurs in patients with Interstitial Lung Diseases- A North Indian Study

The obstructive sleep apnea is commonly found in interstitial lung diseases with overall incidence varying from 17 to 88 %. The morbidity and mortality of obstructive sleep apnea are high when it occurs with chronic respiratory diseases like interstitial lung diseases. There is lack of data on sleep breathing disorder in interstitial lung diseases patients from India. The present study in Journal of the Associations of Physcians of India aimed is to  Assess the occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea in interstitial lung diseases patients and its correlation with other parameters.

The study was a prospective observational study of 41 interstitial lung diseases patients of one-year duration. All patients underwent detailed clinical examination, radiological, laboratory investigations and Type 1 diagnostic polysomnography according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine Guidelines. The severity of obstructive sleep apnea was defined as per Apnea Hypopnea Index and the correlation of obstructive sleep apnea with other parameters were assessed. 

It was found that dyspnea and cough were the common symptoms. The most common type of ILD was

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis accounting for 46.3%.

The common findings were ground-glass opacity and fibrosis.

The obstructive sleep apnea was seen in 78% patients.

The Apnea Hypopnea Index showed significant positive correlation with Body Mass Index and oxygen desaturation index. Hence it was said that

The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea is common in north Indian interstitial lung diseases patients. It was therefore concluded that Polysomnography should be done in all the patients with interstitial lung diseases whenever feasible for early diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, as the coexisting of both will further decrease quality of life and increase morbidity in this chronic progressive lung diseases.

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